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Arabic Language

Hamza (ء)

  • When “alif” (ا) is in the beginning of the word, with the short vowel (diacritic sign) “fatha” and “damma”, the “hamza” (ء) is written above “alif” (أ). If the short vowel (diacritic sign) is kasra, the “hamza” is written below the “alif” (إ)
  • Hamza can also occur in the middle of a word or at the end, above “alif” (أ), above “waaw” (ؤ), or above dotless “yaa” (ئ) or can even stand on its own as (ء)

Letters that Don’t Connect

  • The long vowels “alif” and “waaw” (أ - و) and the 4 consonants “daal” “dhaal” “raa” “zaay” (د - ذ - ر - ز) are non-connected letters
  • Non-connected means having only 2 forms/shapes: initial & seperate (same shape), medial & final (same shape)

Moon & Sun Consonants

  • In writing, there is no difference when the moon or the sun consonant is attached with the definite article (ال)
  • The difference between moon and sun consonants is in sound (only when they are read/ pronounced)
  • The “L” sound (ل) is regularly pronounced when it comes before a moon consonant, for example the word “moon”: pronunciation - alqamar (the l sound is pronounced)
  • The “L” sound (ل) is not pronounced when it comes before a sun consonant, for example the word “sun”: pronunciation - ashams (the l sound is not pronounced)

Singular, Dual, Plural

  • We form the dual form of a word by adding “alif” (ا) and “nuun” (ن) at the end of a singular word, such as singular: “mountain” (جبل), dual: “mountains” (جبلان)
  • In some cases of the dual form, we add “yaa” (ي) and “nuun” (ن) instead of “alif” (ا) and “nuun” (ن) at the end of the word

The plural has 3 categories: masculine plural, feminine plural, and irregular plural

  1. The masculine plural: by adding “waaw” (و) and “nuun” or “yaa” (ي) and “nuun” (ن) at the end of the singular word
  2. The feminine plural: by adding “alif” (ا) and “taa” (ت) at the end of the singular word
  3. The irregular plural: has no specific rule (the plural form in Antura are all irregular forms because the masculine & feminine plurals are more advanced and require the knowledge of many grammar rules)